Monkeypox is a viral zoonosis having symptomatology that is likened to those observed in smallpox patients. More than 120 confirmed or suspected cases of monkeypox have been reported in at least 11 non-African countries in the past week. The emergence of the virus in separate populations across the world where it doesn’t usually appear has alarmed scientists and sent them racing for answers.
The disease is clinically lesser in severity than smallpox, but still has a mortality rate of about 10%. Since the eradication of smallpox and cessation of smallpox vaccination, monkeypox is currently the most relevant orthopoxvirus in humans, especially in 2022. Monkeypox occurs mostly in Central and West Africa, but small outbreaks have also been observed in e.g. the US in 2003. A new third-generation vaccine has been approved to prevent this disease.