Numerous pharmaceutical firms have been racing against the clock to create vaccinations to bring the pandemic under control. Global nations already have access to some of these vaccinations. (1) The coronavirus disease pandemic of 2019 (COVID-19) began in Wuhan, China, and quickly expanded to several regions and nations. It is known to induce severe respiratory infections, including pneumonia and lung failure. The illness is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a beta coronavirus that is genetically identical to the SARS-CoV that was first described in 2002. Similar to SARS-CoV, the spike S protein of SARS-CoV-2 binds to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and stimulates viral entry into type II pneumocytes in the human lung. The infection is disseminated mostly by respiratory droplets and close contact and may be transmitted by symptomatic, pre-symptomatic, or asymptomatic individuals. COVID-19's highly contagious characteristics necessitated several attempts on the part of the WHO and governments to control it. Antiviral medicines and immunotherapy (monoclonal antibodies and protease inhibitors) are being developed or at stages of various clinical trial development.
Numerous factors have been considered in the vaccine design, including the antigen selection for SARS-CoV-2, the vaccine platform, and immunization regimens/routes. Vaccines are available on a variety of platforms, including live attenuated vaccines (LAV), inactivated virus vaccines, protein subunit vaccines, viral vector-based vaccines, and DNA or mRNA vaccines. (2) An hesitation to take a vaccination decreases vaccination uptake and impacts herd immunity, or "community immunity", when most of the population is immunized and no contagious person comes into touch with others), immunization programmers are rendered ineffective because of hesitation. The current COVID epidemic has prompted the creation of various pandemic vaccinations Though the percent of the population required to be vaccinated for herd immunity has not yet been determined, resolving vaccine hesitancy is predicted to lead to more vaccinated persons, resulting in lower infection rates, fewer illnesses, and fewer deaths. (3)
Vaccines are one of medical science's crowning accomplishments. They have wiped out or significantly decreased the occurrence of formerly prevalent illnesses. Vaccines are projected to save between 2 and 6 million lives each year, but 1.5 million more lives might be saved with higher coverage. Many parents, despite promises from physicians and public health officials, are hesitant to vaccinate their children, it is suggested. Observers have highlighted that the internet and social media both contribute significantly to the propagation of vaccine-related anxieties. It is critical, however, to appreciate how the broader social and political backdrop has affected vaccination safety concerns. (2) Vaccine hesitancy seems to be one manifestation of a greater breakdown in trust between some segments of the populace and elites and experts. Vaccine hesitation is related to service availability, as well as complacency and confidence, as well as context, which varies according to time, location, and kind of immunization. Individuals may advance and regress in social strata throughout time by avoiding some vaccinations, accepting others they are worried about, but generally being more tolerant of vaccinations. (4)
Immunization programmers are effective when vaccines are accepted at a high rate. However, while trying vaccination of the populace in low- and high-income nations, distinct concerns must be made Thus, it is vital to assess the public's attitudes, confidence, and acceptability of COVID-19 in India. The purpose of the present study sought to determine the general population's acceptability, the prevalence of vaccine hesitancy, and the influence of social media and peer groups towards the COVID19 vaccination in India. (2)