To demonstrate the ability of microbial factor-activated PPO activity in clearing the invading pathogen in vivo, we infected horseshoe crabs in the presence or absence of PO-specific inhibitor, PTU1 or kojic acid2. A comparison of the remnant bacterial load under these conditions should help to clarify the specific contribution of PO, if any, to the antimicrobial activity. Previously, it was reported that HMC/PPO is activated by host intracellular factors released through LPS-dependent degranulation of hemocytes. To avoid provocation of PPO by such cellular components and to unequivocally demonstrate that the microbial factor-activated PPO contributes to the antimicrobial defense, Gram-positive bacteria lacking LPS were used to avoid LPS-induced hemocyte lysis. To this end, the S. aureus laboratory strains, PC1839 (V8 protease-producing) and AK3 (V8 protease inactive mutant), were injected into the animals.