Following injury, the adult mammalian central nervous system has limited capacity to repair. Transected nerve fibers do not spontaneously re-grow, due in part to myelin-associated neurite growth inhibitors such as Nogo-A. After section of the corticospinal (CS) tract in adult rats, neutralizing Nogo-A with monoclonal antibodies leads to enhancement of axonal re-growth and compensatory sprouting, accompanied by increased motor recovery. The neutralization of Nogo-A represents a promising approach for therapy after lesion if its enhancement of functional recovery can be transposed to primates. The aim of our study was to extend these data in rodents to macaque monkeys and assess whether neutralization of Nogo-A enhances motor recovery from spinal lesion in primates.