The artificial sputum medium (ASM) was formulated to mimic the sputum of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. The intra- and inter-patient variation in the composition of highly viscous CF sputum complicates the achievement of a reproducible culture condition to study microbial biofilms, for example, Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonization in the CF lung. However, the ASM is a homogenous non-viscous medium, which can be prepared in bulk quantities using a fixed set of ingredients. The conventional biofilm models always had cells attached to a solid biotic or abiotic surface submerged in a steady-state or continuous flow of culture medium. In contrast, P. aeruginosa grows in the CF lung under micro-aerophilic to anaerobic conditions in the form of microcolonies eventually forming a macro-aggregate/colony in which bacteria adhere to each other and to sputum components. Similarly, in ASM, P. aeruginosa forms micro- and macro-colonies and showed various phenotypes specific to CF isolates.